Can Inclusive Entrepreneurialism Be a Solution for Unemployed Female Graduates?

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Recent reports highlighted a worrying trend in Malaysia where the number of female graduates has increased but at the same time there is a lower number of female workers. Particularly, in 2022, most unemployed graduates are women, accounting for 54.2% of the total, according to the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DoSM). This increases the gender gap in the workforce and subsequently decreases female participation towards nation-building and economic growth. Meanwhile, studies have shown that inclusivity can significantly affect the reduction of unemployment rates and increase re-employment. Thus, this study suggests that “Inclusive Entrepreneurship” can be a viable solution to the problem observed, as entrepreneurship might be a more attractive option than employment for female graduates. This paper aims to explore the factors influencing inclusive entrepreneurial intention among female graduates in Malaysia. Specifically, this study employed the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and opted for a quantitative exploratory study using the conductive method. The collected survey sample of 227 female students in Malaysia was analysed using PLS-SEM. The framework structure is based on a combination of formatively and reflectively measured variables. The results indicated that attitude, perceived behavioural control and inclusive innovativeness have significant relationships to the inclusive entrepreneurial intention of female graduates in Malaysia. These insights can lead to the formulation of effective policies and programs to encourage as well as enable female graduates to contribute towards the nation’s development via inclusive entrepreneurialism.

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